Biology 102 Study Guide for the Second Midterm Exam

Reread the first page of the syllabus for what we are trying to accomplish in this course.  "ST" below refers to your text by Starr & Taggart

Specifically, here are the topics for which you are responsible on the second midterm:

  1. Geological time as covered in lecture;  the names and starting dates of the geological eons;  the names and starting dates of the geological eras in the Phanerozoic eon;  you do not need to know the names or starting dates of the geological periods, unless this helps you with the next goal
  2. The order of-, and the approximate timing (within a geological eon and/or era) of- the major events in the history of life, as we have kept track on our time line (see your copy plus Timeline record at Bio 102 web site ).  You should understand what "forces" the organisms may have been adapting to during each of these events.
  3. What is continental drift?  What is the mechanism?  Describe the approximate positions of the continents over the last 1000 million years (relative to the timing of the geological eras) and particularly how the positions of the continents and oceans play in the evolutionary story ( here is a copy of the overhead I showed that traces major events from the timeline along with changes in continental configurations)
  4. Defining characteristics of the six kingdoms, plus additional general characteristics as covered in lecture and ST for the Animals, Plants and Fungi.
  5. Features used within the Animal, Plant and Fungus kingdoms to separate Phyla.  In the Protista, you are now responsible for the information on the Fungus-like Protista.  In the Animalia, you are only responsible for the protostome invertebrates covered since the first midterm exam (molluscs, segmented worms and arthropods).
  6. The names of the phyla covered in lecture:  common names or scientific names (in some cases there are only scientific names).
  7. The diversity of different kinds of organisms within the phyla of fungus-like protista, animals, plants, and fungi covered in lecture since the first midterm exam, use information of this sort that you can glean from lecture and ST.  You are not responsible for terms, life cycles and other details mentioned in ST unless they were covered in lecture, except for next three numbered points.
  8. For the plant life cycles, you need to know the moss life cycle and for the four, featured phyla (Mosses, Ferns, Conifers, Flowering Plants), what the gametophytes (male and female if they differ) look like and where they are found (free living?, associated with the sporophyte? how?).
  9. Ecological and/or human (economic) importances of organisms in each phylum mentioned in lecture:  examples given in lecture OR in ST.
  10. Important "symbiotic" (in the full sense of the meaning of this word) relationships among the organisms in these phyla:  coevolution, mutualism and parasitism of and between animals, plants and fungi (and other kingdoms);  be able to intelligently discuss any of the following, giving details covered in lecture or ST:  pollinating insects, fruit dispersal by animals, fungal plant diseases, mycorrhizas, lichens and anything else of this sort that you have heard in lecture or read about in ST.
  11. You should be able to recognize the phylum an organism would be classified in (of those covered in lecture) when given a fairly complete description of the organism.
  12. Evolutionary trends within the three multicellular kingdoms:  Animals, Plants and Fungi.
  13. Major points in the third, fourth, and fifth chapters of E.O. Wilsons, "The Future of Life":  3 The human-caused factors in biodiversity loss (HIPPO); 4 Some examples of endangered and recently extinct biota; 5 Calculating the true value of biodiversity.
If you have any questions about what I am referring to here, please bring them up in lecture or email me  ( ).

Sample Midterm 2 Questions